Glossary 2017-05-04T14:36:36+00:00


For Gemstones, a carat is a measurement of mass. One carat is equal to 200 milligrams. For metal, carat (or Karat) refers to the purity of the metal e.g. 18 carat gold is 75% pure gold.


The pouring of metal into a mould to manufacture a piece of jewellery – we don’t do this.


The absence or presence of flaws in a Gemstone or Diamond.

Conflict diamond

Diamonds whose sale directly funds conflict. The Kimberley Process is an agreement whose signatories uphold their promise to not offer conflict Diamonds for sale.

Eternity band

A continuously gem set band ring. The Gemstones are usually uniform in size and cover the length of the band.

Ethical precious metal

Gold and other precious metal that has been responsibly recycled under conditions dictated by the local Environmental Protection Agency (or equivalent), or responsibly hand mined, with full restoration of the environment, in communities that directly benefit from its sale.

Ethical Gemstones

Gemstones that have been responsibly mined with total consideration for the environment and the community (or miner in the case of legally fossicked goods) in which they are mined. Land must be restored and the communities must directly benefit from their sale. This is a new concept and represents an enormous challenge to Gem Merchants and Gemmologists. It is not yet widely considered by the gem community or the public at large.

Fancy Colour Diamond

A non-colourless Diamond. Colours include yellow (champagne), brown (cognac), pink, green, blue and the rarest of all — red. Whilst Coloured Diamonds do occur naturally, it is not unusual to encounter one that has been artificially enhanced by the application of heat and/or radiation. This treatment must be disclosed by the seller.


Fellow of the Gemmological Association of Australia. This post nominal is only awarded to qualified, registered Gemmologists who are members of the Gemmological Association of Australia.


A science that studies all aspects (from formation to fashioning and identification) of minerals and other rare organic materials (such as pearls and amber) that are beautiful and durable enough for personal adornment or other ornamental purposes. The study of Gemmology encompasses geology, crystallography, chemistry, physics, mathematics, history, geography, gem testing, gemstone synthesis and gem cutting and involves the study of individual gem materials, ornamental minerals, organic material and rocks.

Manufacturing jeweller

A professionally qualified jeweller who has served an apprenticeship and often will have completed a fine arts degree or some form of post graduate training.


A silvery-white metal from the platinum group.


A measurement for gemstones. One carat is equal to 100 points.


The finish of a gemstone. Can also be applied to the finish of metal e.g. highly polished, matte finish, brush finish etc.

Rhodium plating

Electroplating with Rhodium, a silver-white metal from the platinum group. This produces a white, reflective finish on white gold.

Round brilliant

Refers to a cut style commonly associated with diamonds and other light coloured Gem material. Typically a round brilliant cut features 57 or 58 facets 33 above the girdle (the plane separating the crown and pavilion of a Gemstone), and 24 or 25 below the girdle. This cut maximises the yield from the rough (when octahedral) shape of a diamond.


The bottom and sides of a ring.


A ring featuring a single Gemstone or Diamond.

Specific gravity

In the context of Gemmology, specific gravity refers to the relative density of Gem materials and precious metals. Because of the differences in specific gravity between Gem materials, different stones of equal weight will be different sizes; the heavier material will be smaller.

Trade jeweller

An independent manufacturing jeweller to whom major jewellery shops outsource their repairs and manufacturing work. Trade jewellers often work for more than one retailer and also have a private customer base.


A registered Gemmologist with a post-graduate diploma in valuation. Valuers must be current members of the registered national valuing body and must participate in a continuing education programme to ensure their qualifications are up to date.

Wastage rate

The amount of metal that is discarded in the process of manufacturing a piece of jewellery. This usually occurs during sawing or filing.